D. Lining-Out Stock
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2.1
Definition:  Lining-out stock includes all nursery stock suitable for planting out in nursery rows, beds, containers, or into natural areas. For fruit trees and/or understocks see Section 12.0.

2.2
Designation of Size Grades  for plugs and bare root. Height measurements are taken from, while caliper measurements are taken at root collar.

2.2.1
Height:
In  5 cm increments to 30 cm
In 10 cm increments from 30 cm to 60 cm
In 20 cm increments from 60 cm and above.

2.2.2
Caliper: 
In 2 mm increments to 10 mm
In 5 mm increments from 10 mm to 30 mm

2.3
Seedlings, Hardwood Cuttings,
Softwood Cuttings, Layers and Grafts:

Bare Root:
Liners of the above shall have a well branched, healthy root system capable of sustaining vigorous growth. Tops shall be characteristic of the species, healthy and free from disease and fungus. 

Container grown liners:
Roots shall be healthy, reaching the sides of the container and be well enough developed to keep the root ball intact until transplanting. Roots shall not encircle each other to an extent where growth will be inhibited. Liners should be transplanted to a larger container after one year.

2.4
Age in years must be stated. One growing season may equal one year. If grown for less than one season state age in months. For tree whips, age refers to the number of growing seasons of the bud or main stem if on its own roots.


International Specifications Seedlings
1/0        1 year
2/0        2 years
1/1        2 years, as 1 yr transplanted
1/2        3 years, as 2 yr transplanted
2/1        3 years, as 1 yr transplanted
2/2        4 years, as 2 yr transplanted

Hardwood cuttings
0/1        1 year
0/2        2 years

Softwood cuttings
0/1/0        1 year
0/2/0        2 years
0/1/1        2 years, as 1 yr transplanted
0/1/2        3 years, as 1 yr transplanted
0/2/1        3 years, as 2 yr transplanted

Layers
-/1/0        1 year
-/1/1        2 years, as 1 yr transplanted

Grafts
X/1/0        1 year
X/2/0        2 years
X/1/1        2 years, as 1 yr transplanted

When designating lining-out stock, we have adopted the International Specifications.

There are additional abbreviations that can be used to further describe the product or production method.

RC        =    Rooted cutting
HWC        =    Hardwood cutting
SWC        =     Softwood cutting
RP        =    Root pruned
X        =    Graft
Wh        =    Tree whips, either budded or own root
P1        =     Plugs
TC         =    Tissue culture

2.5
Height relationship to caliper by height.  
It is recognized that climatic conditions in different sections of the country produce plants of different caliper height proportions. There is also variance in caliper height proportion from species to species. This should be taken into account.

2.5.1
Deciduous Trees and Shrubs “Bare Root”:  
When caliper governs, the following measurements are taken at root collar.

Height Root length
2 mm    15 cm    15 cm
4 mm    20 cm    20 cm
6 mm    25 cm    25 cm
8 mm    30 cm    25 cm

When height governs the following measurements are taken from root collar.

 Caliper Root length
15 cm    2 mm      15 cm
30 cm    4 mm    20 cm
50 cm    6 mm    25 cm    
60 cm    8 mm    25 cm    

2.5.3
Recommendations - Evergreen Lining-Out Stock
Evergreens should be transplanted frequently enough to create a good root system, which will ensure a minimum of transplanting loss, and to give the top room enough to start the branch framework properly, making a well-shaped specimen when placed in the nursery row.

In order to produce a fibrous root system, genera such as Abies, Pinus, and similar sorts, which normally make a few coarse roots, should be transplanted every two or three years, and species such as Thuja  and Chamaecyparis should be transplanted every three to four years, as they naturally make better roots.

Broad leaved evergreen genera such as Pyracantha, which normally make a few coarse roots, should be transplanted every year, while those producing a good system of fibrous roots may be transplanted every second year only.

Trimming is also necessary to ensure a proper foundation for good shape in the finished plant, although frequent transplanting will usually avoid the necessity of severe trimming.

2.5.4
Conifer Plantation and Reforestation Plants
Conifer liners for Christmas tree plantation, and reforestation uses are graded only by height unless caliper is also specified. When caliper is specified  it  is  by  millimetre intervals: 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm.

The plug must be sufficiently rooted that it holds together upon removal and shall not encircle each other to an extent where growth will be inhibited.

If the seedling is grown bare root, Section 2.3 applies.

Refer to:
Canadian Christmas Tree Growers Association
Tel.: (866) 829-5536 or www.christmastree.net

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