E. Evergreen and Deciduous Conifers
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3.1
Coniferous evergreens, including deciduous conifers may be:
(1)     Balled and Burlapped
(2)     Balled and Field Potted
(3)     Machine Dug into Wire Baskets
(4)     Container Grown
(5)    In-ground Fabric Container

3.2
Designation of Size Grades
Height or spread measurements to be stated as follows:
in 5 cm increments to 30 cm
in 10 cm increments from 30 to 60 cm
in 20 cm increments from 60 to 100 cm
in 25 cm increments from 100 to 300 cm
in 50 cm increments from 300 to 500 cm
in 100 cm increments from 500 cm and over

3.3
Descriptions: Four types of coniferous evergreens are considered separately as follows:

3.3.1
Dwarf: Including  ground  cover, flat and small  globe types usually not exceeding 100 cm in height at maturity. Measurement shall refer to spread (height not considered). The main body of the plant shall be not less than the size stated.

Examples:
Juniperus communis ‘Repanda’
Juniperus horizontalis cultivars
Juniperus sabina ‘Tamariscifolia’
Juniperus sabina ‘Arcadia’
Picea abies ‘Nidiformis’
Thuja occidentalis ‘Little Giant’






Root Ball Diameters (Dwarf)
The following table represents the required minimum root ball diameters for field dug plants, excluding those in in-ground fabric containers. For in-ground fabric container root ball size requirements see Section 3.6.

Larger root balls than those recommended in the table are required when the plants have not been transplanted or root pruned for four or more years or when plants are dug out of season.

Collected or native material dug from woodlots or fence rows must have a root ball 50% greater than stated in the table.

Root balls one size class smaller than those recommended in the table are acceptable for plants frequently transplanted or root pruned.

Height or Spread (whichever is greater) Root Ball Diameter
30 cm 20 cm
40 cm 25 cm
50 cm 30 cm
60 cm 35 cm
80 cm 40 cm
100 cm 45 cm
125 cm 50 cm
150 cm 60 cm
175 cm 70 cm

Root ball measurements of plants larger than those shown in this table, to be specified by the supplier.





3.3.2
Medium
Varieties usually not exceeding 200 cm in height or spread at maturity including semi-spreading, globes and compact upright types, commonly used in foundation planting. Size measurements must be indicated by the supplier, identifying height and/or spread.

Examples:
Juniperus chinensis ‘Pfitzeriana’
Juniperus sabina
Picea glauca ‘Conica’
Pinus mugo var. mugo
Taxus media ‘Brownii’
Taxus cuspidata (spreading types)
Thuja occidentalis ‘Woodwardii’

Root Ball Diameters (Medium)
The following table represents the required minimum root ball diameters for field dug plants, excluding those in in-ground fabric containers. For in-ground fabric container root ball size requirements see Section 3.6.

Larger root balls than those recommended in the table are required when the plants have not been transplanted or root pruned for four or more years or when plants are dug out of season.

Collected or native material dug from woodlots or fence rows must have a root ball 50% greater than stated in the table.

Root balls one size class smaller than those recommended in the table are acceptable for plants frequently transplanted or root pruned.

3.3.3
Tall and Columnar
Frequently used as accent plants in foundation or other plantings. Measurement shall refer to height.

Examples:
Juniperus chinensis ‘Mountbatten’
Juniperus scopulorum ‘Wichita Blue’
Juniperus virginiana ‘Skyrocket’
Taxus media ‘Hicksii’

Width at mid-height, in relation to height may vary with growing locations in Canada and amount of pruning. The following table gives some indication of the height - spread relationship. Width not being less than 20% of height. Any deviations shall be indicated by supplier or be in accordance with the purchaser’s requirement.

Height Width at Mid-Height
40 - 50 cm 10 cm
50 - 60 cm 10 cm
60 - 80 cm 15 cm
80 - 100 cm 20 cm
100 - 125 cm 20 cm
125 - 150 cm 25 cm
150 - 175 cm 30 cm
175 - 200 cm 35 cm
200 - 225 cm 40 cm
225 - 250 cm 40 cm
250 - 275 cm 50 cm
275- 300 cm 50 cm


The following table represents the required minimum root ball diameters for field dug plants, excluding those in in-ground fabric containers. For in-ground fabric container root ball size requirements see Section 3.6.

Larger root balls than those recommended in the table are required when the plants have not been transplanted or root pruned for four or more years or when plants are dug out of season.

Collected or native material dug from woodlots or fence rows must have a root ball 50% greater than stated in the table.

Root balls one size class smaller than those recommended in the table are acceptable for plants frequently transplanted or root pruned.

Height or Spread (whichever is greater) Root Ball Diameter
50 cm 25 cm
60 cm 30 cm
80 cm 35 cm
100 cm 40 cm
125 cm 45 cm
150 cm 50 cm
175 cm 60 cm
200 cm 70 cm
225 cm 75 cm
250 cm 80 cm

Root ball measurements of plants larger than those shown in this table, to be specified by the supplier.

3.3.4
Tall and Broad
This group includes large trees frequently used as lawn specimens or for shelterbelts or screen plantings. Measurements shall refer to height.

Examples:
Picea pungens
Pinus sylvestris
Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca

Width at base in relation to height may vary with growing location in Canada and amount of pruning. The following table gives some indication of the height-spread relationship.  Width at base shall not be less than 40% of height. Any deviations shall be indicated by supplier or be in accordance with purchaser’s requirements.


Height Base Width
80 - 100 cm 35 cm
100 - 125 cm 40 cm
125 - 150 cm 50 cm
150 - 175 cm 60 cm
175 - 200 cm 70 cm
200 - 225 cm 75 cm
225 - 250 cm 80 cm
250 - 275 cm 90 cm
275 - 300 cm 100 cm




Root Ball Diameters (Tall and Broad)
The following table represents the required minimum root ball diameters for field dug plants, excluding those in in-ground fabric containers. For in-ground fabric container root ball size requirements see Section 3.6.

Larger root balls than those recommended in the table are required when the plants have not been transplanted or root pruned for four or more years or when plants are dug out of season.
Collected or native material dug from woodlots or fence rows must have a root ball 50% greater than stated in the table.

Root balls one size class smaller than those recommended in the table are acceptable for plants frequently transplanted or root pruned.


Height or Spread (whichever is greater) Root Ball Diameter
50 cm 30 cm
60 cm 35 cm
80 cm 40 cm
100 cm 45 cm
125 cm 50 cm
150 cm 60 cm
175 cm 70 cm
200 cm 80 cm
225 cm 90 cm
250 cm 90 cm
275 cm 100 cm
300 cm 122 cm
350 cm 127 cm

Root ball measurements of plants larger than those shown in this table, to be specified by the supplier.

3.4
Digging Standards 
These standards include hand balling and burlapping, balling and field potting, and machine digging into wire baskets.

Root ball sizes should always be of a width and depth to encompass enough of the fibrous and absorptive root system to enable full recovery of the plant.

Plant trunks should be centred in the root ball.   

3.4.1
Balled and Burlapped
Balls must be solid, remain intact until transplanted and be tied tightly with burlap and rope. Using 140g jute burlap, balls may be dug up to 40 cm in diameter without the support of heavy twine or rope.

3.4.2
Balled and Field Potted 
Plants to be dug and placed in a container (in lieu of burlap) with the root ball intact. 

3.4.3
Machine Dug Into Wire Basket
Plants to be dug and placed mechanically in burlap lined wire baskets with root balls intact. The burlap shall be secured tightly over the top of the ball and the wire basket cross laced securely. The basket shall fit the ball tightly, crimping can ensure this. 

3.4.4
Root Ball Diameters
The following table represents the required minimum root ball diameters for field dug plants, excluding those in in-ground fabric containers. For in-ground fabric container root ball size requirements see Section 3.6.

Larger root balls than those recommended in the table are required when the plants have not been transplanted or root pruned for four or more years or when plants are dug out of season.

Collected or native material dug from woodlots or fence rows must have a root ball 50% greater than stated in the table.

Root balls one size class smaller than those recommended in the table are acceptable for plants frequently transplanted or root pruned.

3.4.5
Root Ball Depth
Balls of a specified diameter, as well as having sufficient depth to encompass the fibrous and absorptive root systems, should be deep enough to withstand the handling and transportation necessary in the transplanting operation without breaking.

3.4.6
Root Ball Weight
The following table is to be used only as a guide. Root ball weight will vary considerably depending on the soil type and the moisture content.

Root Ball Diameter Estimated Weight
25 cm 10 kg
35 cm 35 kg
40 cm 45 kg
50 cm 100 kg
60 cm 150 kg
70 cm 200 kg
80 cm 300 kg
90 cm 400 kg
100 cm 600 kg
110 cm 850 kg
120 cm 1200 kg
150 cm 2000 kg

3.5
Container Grown Standards
All standards of nursery stock shall be applicable to container grown conifers.

Plants shall be healthy, vigorous and well rooted.

Plants must be grown in the container for a minimum of three months or have a well developed root system reaching the sides of the container to keep the root ball intact until transplanted.

The container shall be sufficiently rigid to hold the root ball shape during handling and shipping.

Grade designations shall include plant size and container size. Plant sizes shall agree with the descriptions in Section 3.3. Container sizes shall conform with the table in Section 3.5.1. Plant age is usually not specified but may be requested by the purchaser.

Plants in containers up to and including #5 should be transplanted into a larger container after two growing seasons.

3.5.1
Container Size
Container sizes are to be adequate to provide sufficient space for growing medium and root growth. Container sizes to conform to Table 1.2.

Container size in relation to plant size will vary with geographical location and grower established practice.

The following tables provide a guide to container size.

Dwarf and Medium Size Conifers

(Section 3.3.1 and 3.3.2)

Spread or Height Container Size
15 - 30 cm #1
25 - 40 cm #2
30 - 50 cm #3
40 - 60 cm #5
50 - 90 cm #7 and #10


Tall & Columnar, Tall & Broad Conifers
(Section 3.3.3 and 3.3.4)

Height Container Size
15 - 40 cm #1
30 - 60 cm #2
50 - 100 cm #3


3.6
In-ground Fabric Containers
These containers have been developed in recent years and may be used by growers to increase root density and enable digging and transplanting with smaller root balls than for conventional field dug plants. Users unfamiliar with handling plants produced in in-ground containers should consult the growers.

The following table represents the recommended minimum root ball diameters for plants grown in in-ground containers. Plants must be grown for a minimum of two seasons in the fabric container. Coniferous trees shall be grown not longer than six years in the container depending on the plant size and container size at planting.

Approximate Height Ball Diameter Ball Depth Approximate Weight
100 - 125 cm 30 cm 25 cm 25 kg
125 - 150 cm 30 cm 25 cm 25 kg
150 - 175 cm 30 cm  25 cm 25 kg 
175 - 200 cm 45 cm 30 cm 40 kg
200 - 225 cm 45 cm 30 cm 40 kg
225 - 250 cm 45 cm 40 cm 40 kg
250 - 275 cm 60 cm 30 cm 55 kg
275 - 300 cm 60 cm 30 cm 55 kg


In-Ground Fabric Containers
Approximate Height Range Caliper Ball Diameter Approximate Ball Depth Approximate Ball Weight
300 - 425 cm 40 mm 40 cm 30 cm 30 kg
300 - 425 cm 45 mm 40 cm 30 cm 35 kg
350 - 500 cm 50 mm 45 cm 40 cm 50 kg
350 - 500 cm 60 mm 45 cm 40 cm 50 kg
425 - 550 cm 70 mm 45 mm 40 cm 55 kg
450 - 575 cm 80 mm 45 cm 40 cm 55 kg
475 - 600 cm 90 mm 60 cm 40 cm 60 kg
500 - 625 cm 100 mm 60 cm 40 cm 60 kg


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