F. Broadleaf Evergreens
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4.1
Broadleafed evergreens may be:
(1)    Balled and Burlapped
(2)    Balled and Field Potted
(3)    Container Grown

4.2
Designation of Size Grades:
Height or spread measurements to be as follows:

in  5 cm increments to 30 cm
in 10 cm increments from 30  to 60 cm
in 20 cm increments from 60 to 100 cm
in 25 cm increments from 100 to 300 cm
in 50 cm increments from 300 and up  

4.2.1
Grading
Because of  varying conditions of growth and methods of production preferred or necessitated by climate, soil and other conditions beyond the control of the grower as well as established pruning practices, it is difficult to rigidly standardize plant material. Therefore, judgement should be exercised and allowances made for plant material of a designated size being at the smaller end of the size class.
 
4.3
Descriptions: Four types of broadleaf evergreens are considered separately as follows:

4.3.1
Spreading: Mainly flat types used as ground covers; height, seldom greater than 30 cm, not a significant factor. Size always refers to spread.

Examples:
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Cotoneaster dammeri
Genista lydia




4.3.2
Semi-spreading:  Height is approximately
1/2 the spread. Size refers to spread.

Examples:
Buxus microphylla koreana
Euonymus fortunei cultivars
Prunus laurocerasus ‘Zabeliana’
Rhododendron (such as ‘Elizabeth’ and
‘Scarlet Wonder’)

4.3.3
Globe and Dwarf forms:  Spread should not be less than 2/3 of the height.  Size refers to height.   
 
Examples:
Berberis verruculosa
Berberis buxifolia var. nana
Buxus sempervirens ‘Suffruticosa’
Ilex x meserveae ‘Blue Boy’
Pieris japonica
Rhododendron (such as ‘Unique’ and ‘Bow Bells’)



4.3.4
Upright Forms:  Spread should not to be less than
1/3 of height.  Size refers to height.   

Examples:
Berberis julianae
Ilex aquifolium Plant trunks or stems should be centred in the root ball. 

Balls should be solid, remain intact until planted and be tied tightly with burlap and rope. Using 140g jute burlap, balls may be dug up to 40 cm diameter without the support of heavy twine or rope. Field dug and potted plants should have an intact soil ball and be placed in a container in lieu of burlap.

4.4.1
Root Ball Diameters
The following table represents the recommended minimum root ball diameters for  field  dug  plants,  excluding  those  in in-ground fabric container.

Plant trunks or stems should be centred in the root ball. 

Balls should be solid, remain intact until planted and be tied tightly with burlap and rope. Using 140g jute burlap, balls may be dug up to 40 cm diameter without the support of heavy twine or rope. Field dug and potted plants should have an intact soil ball and be placed in a container in lieu of burlap.

4.4.1
Root Ball Diameters
The following table represents the recommended minimum root ball diameters for  field  dug  plants,  excluding  those  in in-ground fabric container.

Plant Height or Spread (whichever is greater) Root Ball Diameter
30 cm 20 cm
40 cm 25 cm
50 cm 30 cm
60 cm 35 cm
80 cm 40 cm
100 cm 50 cm
125 cm 60 cm
150 cm 70 cm


Larger root balls than those recommended in the table are required when the plants have not been transplanted or root pruned for four or more years, or when plants are dug out of season.

Collected material must have a root ball 50% greater than stated in the table.

4.4.2
Root Ball Depth
Balls of a specified diameter, as well as having sufficient depth to encompass the fibrous and absorptive root system, should also be deep enough to withstand the handling and transportation necessary in the transplanting operation without breaking. 

4.4.3
Soil Ball Weight
This table is to be used only as a guide. Root ball weight will vary considerably depending on the soil type and the moisture content.

Root Ball Diameter Estimated Weight
25 cm 10 kg
35 cm 35 kg
40 cm 45 kg
45 cm 70 kg
50 cm 100 kg
60 cm 150 kg
70 cm 200 kg



4.5
Container Grown Standards
All standards of nursery stock shall be applicable to container grown broadleaf evergreens.

Plants must be grown in the container for a minimum of three months or have a well developed root system reaching the sides of the container to maintain a firm ball.

The container shall be sufficiently rigid to hold the root shape during handling and shipping.

All plants shall be specified by both plant size and container size. Plant sizes shall agree with the descriptions in Section 4.3. Container sizes shall agree with the table in Section 4.5.1. Plant age is usually not important but may be requested by the purchaser.

Plants in containers smaller than #5 should be transplanted into a larger container after two growing seasons. Those in #5 containers and larger should be tranplanted into a larger container after three growing seasons.

4.5.1
Container Size
Container size should be adequate to provide sufficient space for growing medium and root growth.

Container size in relation to plant size will vary with section of the country and established grower practice.

The following table provides a guide to container size.

Plant Size Container Size
15 to 30 cm # 1
25 to 50 cm #2
40 to 80 cm #3
60 to 100 cm #4




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