Plant Health and Regulatory Issues

A list of some of the more recent plant health issues of concern to the sector:



The USDA established of a new category in their regulations governing the importation of nursery stock. This new regulation is Plants for Planting Not Authorized for Importations Pending Pest Risk Analysis or NAPPRA.

follow the links below for more information

Determining US Phytosanitary Import Requirements (February 20, 2014)

Industry comments requested for second NAPPRA list (June 13, 2013)

NAPPRA List - Round Two (June 13, 2013)

Implementation of the United States new NAPPRA rule (April 29, 2013)

USDA posts final NAPPRA ruling (April 23, 2013)

USDA NAPPRA requirements to go into effect soon! (March 14, 2013)

NAPPRA List (March 11, 2013)

NAPPRA Consultation Presentation September 2012: English and French


Importing and exporting nursery product associated with bamboo stakes

Importing or exporting product with bamboo stakes?  Beware of new regulations.

All growers importing plant material with bamboo stakes into Canada from the US should be aware of new regulations now being enforced by CFIA.  Continue reading...

Exporting - UPDATE: bamboo stakes denied entry to the US
Important information regarding exporting plant material with bambo stakes from Canada to the US. Read more...



Boxwood Blight (Cylindrocladium buxicola)

C. buxicola, a serious disease affecting Buxus spp. was first detected in North America in the late fall and early winter of 2011/12.  As this pest was previously unknown to industry or CFIA, the Agency undertook a detection survey beginning in the spring of 2012 to determine its spread across Canada. 

Although the regulatory status of C. buxicola in Canada and the US is under review by the CFIA and USDA respectively, feedback from industry stakeholders in both countries favours that it should maintain its current non-regulated status.

More information.


Pear Trellis Rust (Gymnosporangium fuscum )

Japanese Apple Rust (Gymnosporangium yamadae) 

Earlier this spring, the CNLA were invited by CFIA to comment on their proposal to deregulate Gymnosporangium fuscum and G. yamadae, the causal agents of pear trellis rust and Japanese apple rust, respectively.  A notice was sent to CNLA growers and the risk management proposal was posted on the CNLA website.

As the result of a consultation call with growers, it was agreed that CNLA would support the deregulation of G. fuscum (pear trellis rust) as it now has wide distribution across Canada.  However, as G. yamadae (Japanese apple rust) is not known to occur in BC, and as the impacts to other sectors and especially the fruit growing sector are not known, CNLA have asked CFIA to provide further information before they are able to make a decision in this matter.

Further information on this issue will be made available to industry as it becomes available.
(Updated 07/25/12) 


RMP Pear Trellis Rust and Japanese Apple Rust (English)

RMP Pear Trellis Rust and Japanese Apple Rust (French)




Apple Ermine Moth (Yponomeuta malinellus Zeller)

Apple ermine moth (Yponomeuta malinellus Zeller) is a regulated pest in Canada with significant impact to BC growers as the regulation stipulates an onerous spray schedule prior to domestic movement of apple trees out of regulated areas.  The request of BCLNA growers to CNLA to support their lobby efforts for deregulation of this pest by CFIA has been presented to the Landscape Ontario growers’ group.  While the LO group agrees that the control measures specified by CFIA are outdated, onerous and environmentally unfriendly, they have also expressed concern about the possible spread of this pest to other areas of Canada.  This matter will be presented to Landscape Ontario’s Plant Health Advisory Committee to provide further comment and recommendations, including the suggested control of AEM through a sound IPM program.

A number of Ontario growers have reported that CFIA is now conducting surveys for AEM in that province.  This is a clear indication that CFIA are considering the deregulation of AEM, but they have declined to make any further comment, pending the outcome of these survey results. 

Further information on this issue will be made available to industry as it becomes available.
(Updated 07/25/12)  




Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum)

P. ramorum was first detected in a BC nursery in 2003.  P. ramorum is considered by CFIA to be a non-regulated quarantine pest and eradication measures are enforced by CFIA in the event of a positive find at a nursery.   P. ramorum has a long list of host plants, many of which are of significance to the environment and the forestry sector and the import of host plants is regulated through Directive D-01-01.

In order to maintain marketplace confidence, beginning in 2004, BCLNA, in cooperation with the CNLA and CFIA undertook the development and implementation of a Best Management Practices and certification program.  This program is now a module of the Clean Plants certification program.

Complete and up-to-date information on P. ramorum is available on the website of the California Oak Mortality Taskforce: 




Plum Pox Virus (PPV)

Plum Pox Virus is a serious quarantine pest affecting stone fruit species of Prunus and as such is a serious threat to the fruit production industry in Canada.  It was first found in Ontario and Nova Scotia in 2000 as a result of CFIA national surveys.  As two successive eradication strategies were ultimately not successful, they were suspended in 2011. 

Instead, CFIA is moving forward with a Plum Pox Monitoring and Management Program (PPMMP) over the next five years. This program is designed to contain and mitigate the spread of plum pox virus (PPV) to minimize the impact of this virus on Canada’s tender fruit industry, as well as to facilitate industry management of PPV.

Funding of $17 million over five years announced in Budget 2011 has been approved and the program will be delivered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC). It will be done in two phases. The first five-year phase will develop the regulatory controls and best management practices with provincial governments, and the second phase will be ongoing mitigation of the spread of PPV through regulatory controls.




Emerald Ash Borer – Agrilus planipennis

The emerald ash borer, which attacks all species of Fraxinus. has killed millions of ash trees in southwestern Ontario, Michigan and surrounding states. It poses a major economic and environmental threat to urban and forested areas in both countries. 

The impact to the nursery sector has been equally severe.  While EAB has never been detected at the nursery level, sales of this once popular street tree have declined significantly over the years, not only in Ontario and Quebec, but across Canada. 

Federal regulatory measures prohibit the movement of specific materials including any ash material and firewood of all species from specific areas of Ontario and Quebec. Anyone violating these restrictions is subject to a fine and/or prosecution.

Emerald Ash Borer Regulated Areas Expanded (May 7, 2013)

CFIA to make changes to EAB management strategy (April 23, 2013)


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